英検1級

英検1級を独学で英作文のテンプレを完璧に覚えて点数を満点に上げる方法

英検1級を独学で勉強している方にとって1級は相変わらず手強い印象ですよね。僕もいまだに勉強中です。

しかし確実に合格を狙える方法が1つだけあるのです。それは英作文を満点に近づけることです。

メメメイナ
英検1級って英作文の配点が大きいですよね?
ナナナイル
そうだね。大体1次試験の1/3だね。
メメメイナ
ここ苦手です。点数も安定しないし!
ナナナイル
それは次の2つのポイントを守れば点数は上がっていくよ
  1. 英検1級の英作文のルールを覚える。賛成か反対かを序論で言って3つの理由でサポートして結論で序論を再確認する。
  2. 3つの理由のテンプレートを頻出トピックに沿って表現をストックしておく。このストックの多さが点数を決める!
メメメイナ
なるほど。モヤモヤしていた感じが晴れました。
ナナナイル
では、早速テンプレートを勉強していこう

では、英検1級の英作文や2次試験に頻出な英文を全て覚えやすいように公開します。

日本語訳は下記の記事をご覧ください

テンプレ
英検1級に独学で合格したいので英作文のテンプレはこれしか覚えません

続きを見る

1~10

1:world peace

There have been a lot of discussions and debates about how to achieve world peace.I believe that world peace is unlikely to be attainablebecause of the history of conflicts, the uneven distribution of wealth, and the misleading mass media.

Firstly, most of the conflicts frequently go back decades, even centuries. Animosity toward ethnic and political rivals has become so ingrained that terrorist attacks have become rampant in the region.

Secondly, wealth inequality is another obstacle. The vast majority of the wealth of this world is concentrated in the hands of a few.This disparity creates fundamentalist values in the public, encouraging people to join terrorist organizations for acts of violence.

Finally, the mass media stifles world peace.By focusing on violence and war, the media presents small extremist group as representing entire nations or religions.This creates false conceptions that would breed hostility.

In summary, because of the history of conflicts, the uneven distribution of wealth, and the misleading mass media are the obstacles that impede world peace.Therefore, it stands to reason that world peace is not attainable in the foreseeable future.

2:warfare

There have been a lot of discussions and debates about whether or not warfare has been constantly breaking out in history.I believe that warfare is inevitable on this globe, due to human nature, the futility of prevention efforts, and animosity of minority groups.

Firstly, war has been fought since the earliest history of human beings.It seems that war is a part of human nature.There have  been wars, and there are still numerous wars being fought around the globe today.

Secondly, conflicts are beyond control of any one nation or the United Nations.China, for example, is a sponsor of North Korea, but is not able to control the conflicts between North and South Korea.

Finally, fundamental religious feelings and nationalism are increasing in various parts of the world, often  against Western countries. These negative feelings could lead to greater risks such as terrorist attacks.

In summary, human nature, the futility of prevention efforts, and  animosity of minority groups are breeding conflicts around the globe. Therefore, it stands to reason that warfare among nations will never be completely eliminated.

3:promoting democracy

There have been a lot of discussion and debates about whether promoting democracy is good or not. due to political stability, economic prosperity, and protection of human rights, I believe democratic nations should encourage the spread of democracy worldwide.

Firstly, democratic nations are far more stable than nondemocratic ones. Nondemocratic regimes force policies  onto their people.Democracy, on the other hand, allows for nonviolent reform through elections, stabilizing its society.

Secondly, democracy encourages economic growth.Nations thrive when people are free to innovate in business as well as participate in a market economy. Historically, international trade has prospered among democratic nations, not under repressive governments.

Finally, human rights are often abused in nondemocratic nations.Political dissidents are often imprisoned or killed.Genocidal campaigns are another possible consequence of such regimes.It is natural that democratic nations intervene by force to stop such crimes against humanity.

In summary, political stability, economic prosperity, and protection of human rights are the benefits ensured by democracy.Therefore, it stands to reason that democratic nations should encourage the spread of democracy worldwide.

4:terrorism

There has been a lot of discussion and debates about whether terrorism can be vanished or not. I believe that it is impossible to eliminate terrorism, due to the long history of conflicts, the limitations of military actions, and the enormous cost for its prevention.

Firstly, most of the conflicts frequently go back decades, even centuries. Animosity toward ethnic and political rivals has become so ingrained that terrorist attacks are rampant in the conflict-ridden regions.

Secondly, military responses often aggravate situations.The U.S. intervention of Iraq and Afghanistan, for example, failed to deter terrorists from either country.On the contrary, the intervention bred anti-American feelings which encouraged people to join terrorist groups.

Finally, financial limitations hamper the elimination of terrorism.Although surveillance technology and security enhancements can be an effective preventive measure, enhancing security at every single target is just too costly.

In summary, the long history of conflicts, the limitations of military actions,

and the enormous cost for its prevention are the obstacle that

hamper the elimination of international terrorism.Therefore, it stands to reason that it is unlikely to eradicate terrorism from the world in the foreseeable future.

5:world hunger

There have been a lot of discussions and debates whether or not world hunger issue will be solved. I believe that this problem is unlikely to be solved, due to population growth, widespread conflicts, and Western eating habits.

Firstly, the population growth is so rapid that agricultural population can not keep up with its speed.Feeding 7 billion people on this globe is becoming increasingly difficult.Moreover, the overpopulation creates poverty, which prevents people from obtaining food even when it is available.

Secondly, wars are displacing millions of people, creating famines and refugees.Widespread conflicts disrupt every aspect of food production cycles.Even after wars have ended, leftover landmines disable people to farm in such areas.

Finally, Western eating habits are compounding the problem.Westerners consume huge amounts of meat.Such consumption has proven to be an inefficient way to get nourishment.An acre of lad used for growing crops can feed far more people than the one raising cattle.

In summary, population growth, widespread conflicts, and Western eating habits are the obstacle that stifle the elimination of world hunger.Therefore, it stands to reason that it is unlikely that global hunger issue will be solved in the foreseeable future.

6:world poverty

There has been a lot of discussion and debates about world poverty.I believe that poverty can be eliminated, due to education, eradication of political corruption, and the fairness in trade.

Firstly, education is the best place to start.People in underdeveloped countries can learn new skills, encouraging them to obtain employment and increased income.In other words, education can release a number of people from poverty.

Secondly, political corruption should be eliminated.The vast majority of the wealth of this world is concentrated in the hands of a few.Unless wealth is equally distributed to people, poverty can not be eradicated.

Finally, trade should be strictly controlled.Lax trade regulations allow powerful nations to monopolize the markets.Stricter Regulations will rectify the unfairness and allow smaller nations to prosper.

In summary, education, eradication of political corruption, and the fairness in trade, poverty can be eliminated from the world.Therefore it stands to reason that eradication of poverty can be solved in foreseeable future.

7:helping other nations

There have been a lot of discussion and debates whether or not developed countries should help developing countries.I believe i should do so, for compensation, economic growth, and global prosperity.

Firstly, developed nations that previously colonized developing countries should compensate for their past exploitation.Since their past oppression of nations in Asia, and South America is one of the reasons why they are still in poverty.Developed countries are held responsible for helping them overcome  the situation.

Secondly, economic aid will contribute to global economic prosperity.Their efforts to fill the technological gap through investment will promote economic growth in developing countries, which in turn will lead the growth of global economy.

Finally, developed nations' aid to third world will nurture global peace.Since poverty breeds conflicts and terrorism, financing developing nations would help stabilize the international community, which lead to world peace.

In summary, compensation, economic growth, and global prosperity are the benefits ensured by developed nations' aid.Therefore, it stands to reason that developed nations should help underdeveloped countries overcome poverty.

8:intervention

There have been a lot of discussions and debates about eradicating of crimes against humanity in conflict ridden areas around the globe.I believe that it is justifiable to interfere with such countries, in order to fight terrorism, to protect lives, and to promote global peace.

Firstly, external interference is acceptable when terrorism is promoted in a country.Terrorism is a major issue that poses a threat to the today's world.The nations that promotes terrorism must be restrained.

Secondly, a country should be intervened when massacre is practiced.When a government becomes so brutal that the citizens of that country desperately need help outside, it is ethical to intervene to rescue them out of such atrocity.

Finally, nations should collaborate to promote peace.Those countries that do not promote peace or threaten nations must face its consequences.

In summary, fighting terrorism, protection of peoples lives, and promotion of global peace would justify the interference with another nation's politics.Therefore, it stands to reason that Japan should interfere with problem countries, in order to vanish atrocious crimes.

9:globalization

There have been a lot of discussions and debates about how globalization affects the economy.I believe that globalization benefits the world economy, because it vitalizes economic growth, enlightens people, and lowers product prices.

Firstly, globalization encourages economic growth.The nations with closed economies with limited access to free trade have suffered from economic slumps.On the contrary, those nations that actively participate in the global economy, are rapidly developing.

Secondly, globalization allows people to face economic realities.Through education and the Internet, the people in under developed nations will be motivated to be more competitive and prosperous.

Finally, globalization lowers product prices.In the global society, products are often made or assembled in nations with low labor costs and high techniques.This will enhance industry's efficiency for further growth.

In summary, vitalizing economic growth, enlightenment of people, and lowering product prices are the benefits ensured by globalization.Therefore, it stands to reason that globalization should be encouraged.

10:multiculturalism

There have been a lot of discussions and debates about how multiculturalism affects society.Some people say that cultural differences would cause conflicts and crimes.I believe, however, that multiculturalism nurtures respect for differences, cultural awareness, and economic growth.

Firstly, multiculturalism enlightens people to respect differences.When differences are appreciated among people, racial discrimination will be eliminated.

Secondly, the world is becoming smaller today because of globalization.The citizens of multicultural societies can speak different languages and have greater cultural awareness.They can better communicate and relate to people of different backgrounds.

Finally, multiculturalism nurtures diverse ideas, as well as different points of view.This diversity would promote innovation for new products, stimulating the economy.

In summary, respect for differences, cultural awareness, and economic growth are the benefits ensured by multiculturalism.Therefore, it stand to reason that multiculturalism is beneficial to society.

メメメイナ
演習もしたいです!何かいい参考書はありますか?
ナナナイル
あるよ!少しづつ紹介していくね!

11~20

11:national identity

There have been a lot of discussions and debates about what role national identity plays in today's society.I believe that national identity is still valuable in term of languages, tourism, and cultural diversity.

Firstly, each language helps maintain its national identity.People are proud of their own culture, and as long as they speak their own language, national identity will remain strong wherever it is.

Secondly, tourism nurtures national identity.People travel to foreign countries see a lot of tourists from other countries, creating exchanges of information about their own cultural values and traditions.This makes people proud of their own culture.

Finally, an increasing number of immigration are expanding cultural diversity.Taking the U.S. for example, people from Asian countries like China live together, preserving their own identity.Consequently, the nation enjoy both cultural and financial benefits form large-scale immigration.

In summary, languages, tourism, and cultural diversity are the benefits ensured by national identity.Therefore, it stands to reason that national identity is valuable today.

12:immigration policy

There have been a lot of discussions and debates whether or not Japan should accept more foreign workers.I believe that Japan should allow more immigrants for higher productivity, care fore the elderly, and increased tax revenues.

Firstly, immigrants will encourage productivity.With a decline in population, Japan needs bigger workforce to stay globally competitive.In addition, people in Japan avoid work that is dangerous, dirty and demanding.Immigrants from less developed nations are willing to do these jobs.

Secondly, immigrants will support the elderly people.With the current birth rate,Japanese society cannot support the growing number of the elderly.Immigrants will provide the senior citizens in Japan with necessary care-giving.

Finally, immigrants will increase the tax revenue.All the pensions and medical care for the increasing number of the elderly are putting an enormous financial burden on Japan.A larger immigrant population will pay a larger portion of taxes, which will help cover the costs.

In summary, higher productivity, care for the elderly, and increased tax revenues will be ensured by more open immigration policy.Therefore, it stands to reason that more open immigration policy is a win-win solution for both Japanese and immigrants.

13:environment

There is a lot of discussions and debates whether or not the global environment has been degraded.I believe that human beings are adversely affecting the globe in terms of the extinction of species, private abuse of nature, and illegal exploitation.

Firstly, many of the plants and animals are becoming extinct.A number of species are disappearing from the earth because their natural inhabitants are being destroyed by humans.

Secondly, concerned citizens can do little about their development because wilderness areas are privately owned.For example, forests are being cut down and burned for industrial purposes.Animals are being slaughtered for financial gains.

Finally, although the areas are designated as reservation, they are often illegally exploited by people pursuing their own profit.Law-breaking loggers cut down forests and poachers hunt endangered animals.

In summary, the extinction of species, private abuse of nature and illegal exploitation epitomize the environmental degradation by humans.Therefore, we should waste no time in addressing these issues, in order to preserve this beautiful planet.

14:economy and environment

There have been a lot of discussions and debates about compatibility between environmental protection and economic growth.I believe that both are compatible with each other in terms of job opportunities, business success, and economic growth.

Firstly, the development of eco-friendly technologies creates huge job opportunities.Advancing technologies for sustainable, eco-friendly cars, as well as solar and wind power generations are in demand for workers in the "green" industry.

Secondly, corporate eco-consciousness contributes to success in their business.There is a growing awareness of corporate social responsibility for environmental protection.Under the circumstances, their eco-friendly reputation will boost their sales and profits.

Finally, the development of eco-friendly products stimulates the national economy.With growing eco-consciousness, consumers are increasingly buying energy-efficient products, such as LED light, hybrid vehicles and solar panels.

In summary, job opportunities, business success, and economic growth are the benefits ensured by eco-friendly concepts.Therefore, it stands to reason that environmental protection is compatible with economic growth.

15:water supply

There have been a lot of discussions and debates about water supply.I believe  that water resources should be protected by alleviating global warming, helping underdeveloped nations, and enhancing education.

Firstly, countermeasures should be taken to reduce global warming.If warming continues, droughts will threaten the sources of water, and glaciers will disappear.Crops wii die, leaving a number of populations without water.

Secondly, developed nations should help poor countries secure their water resources.A increasing number of people have limited access to clean water. Consequently, they become sick from various diseases.

Finally, educational efforts should be enhanced.Education would raise awareness among people about the shortage of fresh water and the steps to conserve water resources.

In summary, alleviating global warming, helping underdeveloped nations, and enhancing education are the necessary steps to maintain global water supply.We should waste no time in protecting the precious resources of this globe.

16:free trade

There have been a lot of discussions and debates about how free trade affects the world economy.I believe that free trade greatly benefits society, by nurturing economic growth, awareness for environment, and gender equality.

Firstly, free trade encourages economic growth.When tariffs are eliminated, trade grows, and economy prospers.Though jobs may be temporarily lost, long-term growth in economy makes this trade-off worthwhile.

Secondly, awareness for the environment would be raised.Studies show that as economic growth raises income levels, people demand higher environmental protection, which will alleviate pollution.

Finally, the negative aspects of traditions would be eliminated.When developing countries join the world economy, its inequality and prejudice decreases domestically, encouraging female empowerment.

In summary, economic growth, awareness for environment, and gender equality are the benefits ensured by practicing free trade.Therefore, it stands to reason that free trade is beneficial to society.

17:sustainable energy

Throughout the twentieth century, oil and coal have facilitated global economic growth.I think, however, that fossil fuels will no longer be the worlds primary energy source, because of decline in fuel reserves, technological advances, and shifts in public opinion.

First of all, fossil fuels are becoming increasingly difficult to obtain.Decreasing oil supplies are forcing energy companies to drill in remote areas.Extraction, however, becomes so difficult and costly that alternative fuels are becoming a better opinion.

Furthermore, technological improvements are making alternative energy more appealing.Solar and wind power, for example, are increasingly cost- efficient and more available to public year by year.

Finally, public opposition to fossil fuels is rapidly rising.People have realized that global warming from fossil fuels is threatening humankind's future.Replacing fossil fuels would alleviate global warming by drastically reducing CO2 emissions.

In summary, limited fossil fuel supplies, technological advances for alternative energies, and public opposition are changing the energy sector.Therefore, it stands to reason that the next generations of humans are likely to turn to alternative forms of energy.

18:urbanization

There have been a lot of discussions and debates that Japan has been rapidly urbanized.These changes, I believe, have been highly beneficial to Japan in terms of the economy, convenience, and environment.

First of all, urbanization has encouraged the economic growth.City dwellers provide the enormous workforce, which is necessary to staff factories and offices, promoting the economy of Japan.

Furthermore, urbanization has made people's lives more convenient.Urban people have better access to stores, public transportation, and other convenience.The internet access is also better in cities than in local areas.

Finally, urbanization has had positive effects on the environment.Urban residents drive less, live in smaller houses, and use less energy.Their lifestyle produce less amount of carbon emissions, which will alleviate the global warming.

In summary, the economy, the daily convenience of people, and the environment have been greatly facilitated by urbanization.Therefore, it stands to reason that urbanization definitely benefits society.

19:cloning technology

There have been a lot of discussions and debates about whether or not cloning research should be promoted.I believe that, the technology can greatly benefits humankind, by increasing the human life span, ensuring a stable food supply, and saving endangered species.

First of all, cloning technology will extend the human's longevity.The technology could be used to grow stem cells, which could be grown into human organs.This medical progress will save a number of patient's lives.

Furthermore, a stable global food supply would be provided.Stem cells, for instance, an be used to produce synthetic meat, which would allow humans to obtain a sufficient amount of protein, without slaughtering animals.

Finally, endangered animals would be saved.The breeding populations of numerous species have become too low to guarantee their survival.Cloning can increase the numbers of the endangered species for their preservation.

In summary, medical advancement, global food supply, and protection of endangered species are the benefits ensured by cloning technology.Therefore, it stands to reason that the cloning technology should be promoted, for the sake of our planet.

20:GMO

It is a controversial issue whether or not GMOs, or genetically modified crops, should be promoted.I believe that GMO, will benefit society of its high productivity, environmental friendliness, and cost effectiveness.

First of all, GMOs can feed more people than conventional crops.The modern agriculture is now struggling to keep up with the growth rate of global population.Genetic engineering could amplify the amount of food production to feed everyone on this planet.

Furthermore, farmers would be able to grow more food on less land, while using less water and pesticides.Globally, GMO crops have dramatically reduced the amount of pesticide and using less water. In other words, GMOs are friendly to the environment.

Finally, food production cost would be lowered, providing lower prices for consumers.GMO crops are reliable and resistant, and its cost efficiency will help vitalize farmers, consumers and the economy.

In summary, high productivity, environmental friendliness, and cost effectiveness are the benefits ensured by GMOs.Therefore, it stands to reason that this technology should be promoted.

メメメイナ
この参考書はどこが売りなのですか?
ナナナイル
今の記事みたいなテンプレが200もあるんだよ笑
メメメイナ
200ッ?!
ナナナイル
全部こなせれば確実に合格できるね!

21~30

21:animal testing

There has been a growing concern over animal testing.I believe that animal testing is justifiable, because it saves humans' lives, boosts the economy, and no alternatives are available.

First of all, animal testing is indispensable to save people suffering from incurable diseases.It greatly contributes to the development of medicine, saving people from deadly diseases.For example, the vaccines for polio and smallpox, saved the lives millions of people.

Furthermore, animal experiments help develop the medical industry, thus stimulating the economy.The medical industry is a high value-added industry whose growth has a profound impact on the economy.

Finally, there is no other effective alternative to animal testing because of the genetic similarity between humans and animals.For example, mice share 92% of human genes.Other alternatives like computer simulation can not produce equally valid results.

In summary, medical development, and the economic growth are the benefits ensured by animal testing, yet no alternative approach is available to it.Therefore, it stands to reason that animal testing is justifiable.

22:nuclear power generation

There have been a growing concern over nuclear power generation.I believe that nuclear power plants should be shut down, because its vulnerability, the threat of radioactive waste, and availability of alternative energy.

First of all, nuclear power plants are too vulnerable to disasters and military attacks.The nuclear disaster in Chernobyl and Fukushima are just case in point.Accidents  at plants ruined the vast land, forcing a great number of citizens to lose their jobs, homes, and their daily lives.

In addition, disposal of radioactive waste is also compounding the problem. Nuclear fuel remains radioactive for thousands of years after being used. Governments are unable to design a reliable process for disposing of this hazardous waste.

Finally, alternative energy technology is becoming available.Solar and wind power generation do not produce poisonous waste, or endanger people.Germany, for instance, is now shifting to this renewable energy.

In summary, the vulnerability, the threat of radioactive waste, and availability of alternative energy suggest that nuclear power plants should be shut down for alternative energy sources.

23:internet censorship

It has been a controversial issue whether or not the Internet should be regulated by government.I do not think the government should censor the Internet, because it would threaten people's communicationdisrupt the freedom of speech, and allow censors to abuse their power.

First of all, the Internet is the indispensable source of information, as well as a means of communication with other people.Censorship would undermine this basic infrastructure.

Furthermore, freedom of speech is guaranteed by the Constitution.Censorship would threaten the right of speech of citizens.Historically, the government which censor the Internet are often the least democratic.Dictators often limit peoples' access to uncensored information.

Finally, censorship would give the government too much power.They may abuse the power and make decisions that should be left to individuals leading to dictatorship.

In summary, threatens to people's communication, the freedom of speech, and potential power abuse of the government are the drawbacks resulting from the Internet censorship.Therefore, it hardly makes any sense to support censorship on the Internet.

24:political correctness

There is a growing public awareness about political correctness in today's world.I believe that political correctness is a sheer necessity, in order to respect individuals, eradicate discrimination, and educate young people.

First of all, most people today believe in equal rights for all human beings.It is vital to promote language that is respectful as a way to fight for the rights of minorities.

However, discrimination is difficult to eliminate.There still are a lot of people who discriminate against minorities.People should be careful of how language affects the feelings of those who are suffering from such unfair treatment.

Finally, it is a social imperative to educate young generations to be tolerant of others.Schools are becoming increasingly diverse, which gives children a great opportunity to learn about political correctness.

In conclusion, equal right, eradicating discrimination, educating young people are the benefits ensured by political correctness.Therefore, it stands to reason that political correctness is effective.

25:space exploration

It has been a controversial issue whether or not space exploration is worth investing.I believe that space exploration benefits the humankind because it enlightens us a space, creates new technologies, and nurtures international cooperation.

First of all, space exploration answers questions about outer space.It gives humankind valuable information about, for instance, how the universe was created or if the earth is the only intelligent planet.

Furthermore, investment in space exploration nurtures new technologies. Satellites, for example, were invented at space exploration.These new inventions surely benefits all humans and encourages our economy.

Finally, space exploration requires international efforts.Even Russia and U.S. are now working together in the space station project.Such cooperation reduces costs, as well as gives opportunities for nations to collaborate with each other.

In summary, information about space, technological inventions and international cooperation are the benefits ensured by space exploration.Therefore, it stands to reason that space exploration is worth investing.

26:science vs art

While some people argue that science is more valuable than art, others feel otherwise.I believe that science outweighs art, because it has brought us convenience, economic growth, and medical progress.

First of all, all the convenience of modern society have resulted from improvement of science.Computers, cars, and phones, to name a few, have been developed with information gained from scientific research and inventions.

Furthermore, our economic growth relies on scientific advances.Without modern technology and communications, our global economy would collapse.Even the majority of our jobs depends on tools and technology that were developed by scientists.

Finally, our health and longevity depend on scientific progress.Medicines, medical technology, and medical treatment have resulted from science.Our understanding of preventive medicine also comes from scientific studies, including our knowledge of healthy nutrition.

In summary, the convenience, economic development and medical advances of modern society have been provided by science.Therefore, it stands to reason that science outweighs art in our society.

27:college education

There is a growing concern over the effectiveness of college education in Japan.I believe that our current college system fails to prepare students for the realities of work, due to lenient academic standards, inappropriate subjects, and too much focus on memorization.

First of all, academic standards are not strict enough.A number of college students waste their years on campus.They don't study hard, but they still graduate.College should impose harder assignment on students to prepare them for harsh reality in society.

Furthermore, the subjects students study at colleges are irrelevant to their future jobs.Consequently, they are not prepared for work at graduation and face huge adjustments when they are out in society.

Finally, schools in Japan focus too much on the memorization not on creativity.Entrance examinations have a negative effect on the college experience.Students learn how to pass tests, but not how to think on their own.

In summary, lenient academic standards, inappropriate subjects, and too much focus on memorization are disrupting the students' preparation for work.Therefore, it stands to reason that college education in Japan should be reformed so that it can meet the business needs.

28:lifetime employment

There have been a lot of discussions and debates about the effects of the lifetime employment of Japan.I believe that lifetime employment system is still relevant, because it increases worker's motivation, loyalty, and their quality of life.

First of all, lifetime employment motivates employees to work.The more they contribute to the company, the more the company grows.The economic growth leads to higher salaries and social status.

Furthermore, lifetime employment enhances employee's loyalty to the company.As they identify themselves to the company, they will fight to help the company during times of financial difficulties.

Finally, lifetime employment ensures that workers have the security of log-term employment.With steady income, they do not have worry about losing their jobs.This allows them to lead a secured life without stress being able to focus on their work.

In summary, worker's motivation, their loyalty, and the job security are the benefits ensured by the lifetime employment system.Therefore, it stands to reason that the system is beneficial to the Japanese society.

29:CSR

It has been a controversial issue whether or not large corporations should do more than generating profits.I believe that major companies should go beyond making profits to ensure higher level of reputation, working condition, and contribution to society.

First of all, large companies are successful because they have developed a reputation for excellence.This reputation is a brand and must be protected by providing benefits to society and avoiding scandals.

Furthermore, successful corporations need high-quality management and employees.They not only need to attract quality workers, but they must also keep them to maintain consistency.

Finally, large companies play an vital role in their local communities.Giving donations or volunteering are a case in point.They are also expected to contribute to global concerns such as environment protection.

In summary, maintenance of their quality reputation, working conditions, and contribution to local communities are the responsibility of large corporations.Therefore, it stands to reason that they should do more than making profits.

30:PKO

It is controversial issue whether or not Japan should play a more active role abroad.I believe, however, that the role of Japanese military should be limited to noncombat operations, to observe the Constitutions, to evade criticism from abroad, and to contribute to peace keeping operations.

First of all, as a result of its colonial activities in the past as well as its defeat in World War Ⅱ, a new constitution was drafted in Japan.It stipulates that Japan should not be involved in military operations overseas.

However, Japan is often criticized by other developed nations for not doing enough in peace keeping operations.On the other hand, if Japan deploys combat soldiers abroad, it would face even harsher criticism from some Asian nations that were invaded by Japan in the past.

Finally, Japan is responsible for contributing to combating terrorism and stopping crimes against humanity.Japan should focus on proving non combat support such as technology and engineering.

In summary, by observing the Constitutions, evading criticism from abroad, and contributing to world peace, Japan's military can contribute to world peace by providing noncombat operations.

メメメイナ
この参考書はさっきとどこが違うのですか?
ナナナイル
英検と密接な関係の旺文社が出している本というだけで価値は十分だよ
メメメイナ
確かに。パス単も旺文社ですし。
ナナナイル
そうそう。しかも本書はさっきのと違って内容を絞っているので効率が良い学習が出来そうだね

31~40

31:world heritage

It is a controversial issue whether or not World Heritage Site helps preserve the value of places.I believe that World Heritage designation is beneficial, as it raises public awareness, economic growth and pride of local communities.

First of all, World Heritage Site raises public awareness of the value of the sites.Historical or natural value of the sites will become the symbols of the country.When tourists appreciate the beauty of the site, local people would view them with new respect.

Furthermore, World Heritage Site nomination breeds economic growth.Government often have trouble covering high costs for preservation of its site.Increases in tourism will bring money and jobs to local communities.

Finally, becoming World Heritage Site would nurture the pride in local people about their hometown.This will help revitalize local communities in terms of population and prosperity.

In summary, public awareness, economic growth and pride of communities are the benefits ensured by the designation of Word Heritage Site.Therefore, it stands to reason that this recognition should be promoted.

32:outsourcing

There has been a lot of discussions and debates about whether or not outsourcing is beneficial to society.I believe that outsourcing will have negative impacts on the economy, because, it will create unemployment, damaged corporate culture, and industrial hallowing outs.

First of all, outsourcing exacerbates unemployment.It seeks to take advantage of the lower labor costs abroad.This follows that domestic job market would shrink getting people out of jobs.

Furthermore, outsourcing adversely affects corporate culture.A company depends on its success on the loyalty and commitment of employees.When workers see their peers lose their jobs, they will be demoralized and become less loyal to the company.

Finally, outsourcing engenders industrial hallowing outs.It would change companies into multinational corporations locating production abroad where costs are lower.This will undermine the power of the domestic industry.

In summary, unemployment, damaged corporate culture, and industrial hallowing outs are the drawbacks which can be caused by outsourcing.Therefore, it stands to reason that outsourcing should not be promoted.

33:aging society

There has been a growing concern over aging society.I believe that increasing longevity have positive effects on society because of medical progress, accumulated wisdom, and assistance for younger generations.

First of all, the increasing longevity is simply a result of medical advancement. Senior citizens are healthier and more energetic than ever before, allowing them to enjoy their time in their life.

Furthermore, senior citizens can educate younger people.They have more experience and share their accumulated wisdom with their younger generations.

Finally, the elderly can help their children by looking after their grandchildren. This assistance allows women to participate in society even when they have children, improving gender equality.

In summary, medical progress, accumulated wisdom, and assistance for younger generations are the benefits ensured by growing number of senior citizens.Therefore, it stands to reason that increased longevity is beneficial to society.

34:smartphones for kids

It has been a controversial issue how the usage of smart phone are affecting children.I believe that children should be allowed to use smart phones because of their security, communication with others, and technology literacy.

First of all, children are safer when they carry smart phones.There are some applications available to allow parents to track the location of their children.This kind of tools could protect children's safety.

Furthermore, smart phones enables children to interact with friends.Using smart phones, they can chat, play games, and help each other for their study at schools.Smart phones help them breed relationships with others.

Finally, smart phones can help children familiarize themselves with technology.Unless people are skilled with IT devices, they will face difficulty in employment and will be unable to compete in the global economy.

In summary, security, communication with others, and technology literacy are the benefits ensured by the usage of smart phones.Therefore, it stands to reason that children should be allowed to take advantage of the technology.

35:SNS

There have been a lot of discussions and debates about whether or not Social Networking Services should be promoted.I believe that the service greatly benefits society, because it improves relationships, provides useful information, and boost the economy.

First of all, online communication would improve relationships.It helps people stay in touch with friends and acquaintance they can not see regularly.SNS also helps shy or socially isolated people connect with other people.

Furthermore, SNS would facilitate the dissemination of useful information among users.For example, when natural disasters happen, people can share information about infrastructure, rescue operation and evacuation procedures.

Finally, SNS would help boost economy, by providing cost-effective advertising media.For example, companies can increase their sales by using various SNS features such as popularity ratings.

In summary, improved relationships, useful information, and enhanced economy are the benefits ensured by use of Social Networking Services.Therefore, it stands to reason that this service should be promoted.

36:corporal punishment

It has been a controversial issue about whether or not corporal punishment should be admitted.I believe that corporal punishment should be banned in schools because it promotes antisocial behavior, causes physical injuries, and academic development.

First of all, corporal  punishment develops students' antisocial behavior.It leads to intense dislike toward their teachers among children, which can lead to students' refusal to go to school, violence against their teachers, and even rebellion against the authorities.

Furthermore, corporal punishment causes physical injuries to students.Survey show that the most common injury resulting from corporal punishment is buries, fractures, eardrum damages.Some students were taken to the hospitals in the past.

Finally, corporal punishment can have an adverse impact on students' intellectual development.Its violence creates fear and depression in students.Consequently, such emotional problems seriously undermine students' academic growth.

In summary, antisocial behavior, physical injuries, and damage to academic growth are the drawbacks created by corporal punishment.Therefore, it stands to reason that corporal punishment should not be justified.

37:protest movements

There have been a lot of discussions and debates about whether or not protest movements should be promoted.I believe that protest movements greatly benefits society, with respect to freedom of speech, public awareness on social issues, and social reforms.

First of all, protest movements epitomize freedom of speech.Democracy ensures that everyone in the community has the right to express his or her opinions.When they are not happy with the policy of their government, it is natural that they express anger and discontent.

Furthermore, protest movements raise awareness on social problems.When protesters take to the street, the demonstrations are reported in newspaper, on TV, and on the Internet.This publicity draws people's attention to the issues being raised by protesters.

Finally, protest movements help reform society.Opposing expressions from the public put pressure on the government.This forces the government to seriously tackle the issues.Consequently, problems will be solved, which will encourage reforms of the society.

In summary, protecting freedom of speech, raising public awareness on social issues, and improving the social system are the benefits ensured by protest movements.Therefore, it stands to reason that protest movements are beneficial to society.

38:mercy-killing

It has been a controversial issue about whether or not euthanasia should be legalized.I believe that mercy-killing  should be accepted, in order to alleviate patients' pain, to respect their dignity, and to reduce burdens.

First of all, euthanasia eliminates agonizing pain of terminally-ill patients.Those who have no hope of recovery are leading a life of despair every day.It is inhumane not to relieve those patients of unbearable pain.

Furthermore, euthanasia ensures the human dignity of patients.Everyone has a right to make a decision for his or her life.If a patients choose to end life, that decision should be respected.

Finally, euthanasia reduces a financial burden.Medical treatment for patients for life-support system requires a huge amount of cost.Terminating the treatment for comatose patients on request, greatly reduces burden on patients, their family members and society.

In summary, alleviation of patients' pain, protection of their human dignity, and reduction of cost are the benefits ensured by practicing of euthanasia.Therefore, it stands to reason that mercy-killing should be legalized.

39:capital punishment

It has been a controversial issue about whether or not capital punishment should be banned.I believe that death penalty should be abolished, in order to avoid wrongful executions, protect human rights, and it provides no benefits to society.

First of all, death penalty risks executing innocent people.Wrongful imprisonment would be tragic, but at least efforts could be made to compensate the wronged individuals.If an innocent person person is executed, however, nothing can be done to make up for it.

Furthermore, death penalty is a violation of the right to life.No matter how heinous the crime, a civilized nation such as Japan should not condone human rights violations.Execution also constitutes psychological torture, which is unacceptable in modern society.

Finally, capital punishment provides no benefits on society.Although proponents claim it deters a crime, the death penalty has not been associated with decreased crime.The government should instead imprison criminals for long periods of time and rehabilitation.Life imprisonment keeps murders off the streets.

In summary, capital punishment is a cruel torture that is unacceptable in today's world for deterring wrongful executions, protecting human rights, and benefiting nobody.Given Japan's position as an advocate of democracy and human tights, the government should indeed abolish it.

40:sports event

There have been a lot of discussions and debates about whether or not hosting international sporting events is beneficial to the host country.I believe that hosting such events would benefit society, because it enhances economic growth, infrastructure and the prestige of the host country.

First of all, hosting international sports would boost the economy, stimulating the tourism and related industries.It will also generate huge profits from corporate sponsorship as well as TV broadcasting rights.

Furthermore, hosting such events would develop the infrastructure.The 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games was just case in point.A number of infrastructure projects, such as new highways and subway lines, greatly contributed to the improved transportation networks.

Finally, hosting events would enhance the prestige of the host country.It will enhance the pride of the country and will give the nation a great opportunity to showcase its unique culture worldwide.

In summary, economic growth, improved infrastructure and the prestige of the host country are the benefits ensured by hosting sporting events.Therefore, it stands to reason that hosting sporting events should be promoted.

メメメイナ
これは単語帳ですよね?
ナナナイル
そうだね。英検1級によく出るトピックの論証の仕方が載っているから英検側が求める論理が学べるわけだね
メメメイナ
そんな使い方が・・・
ナナナイル
しかもこの本は長文読解やリスニングのパート2の正解率を高める本としても使えるので滅茶苦茶オススメ
文単1級の使い方や内容やレベルをあれこれ試してみてのベストを紹介

続きを見る

41~42

41:domestic issues

It has been a controversial issue how governments should tackle a number of issue facing Japan.I believe that the Japanese government should prioritize domestic issues over international problems because of labor shortagecountermeasures for disasters,and energy issues.

First of all, Japan is now facing a worker shortage, and a number of companies have trouble finding competent workers.Consequently, they are losing profitability and productivity.

Furthermore, Japan is a country full of natural disasters, and the last big earthquakes told us that we hadn't been well prepared against such natural disasters.The tsunami swept numerous houses and people.This tragedy would have been prevented if enough preparation had been done for natural disasters.

Finally, the government must take proper measures to deal with nuclear power plants.They also should reduce reliance on nuclear power, promoting renewable energy such as solar power.Giving subsides to people with solar panels will be a first step to do so.

In summary, labor shortage, countermeasures for disasters, and alternative energies are the issues that faces the Japanese government.Therefore, it stands to reason that priority should be given to domestic issues over foreign ones.

42:technology

There have been a lot of discussions and debates about whether or not the advantages of technological progress overweigh its drawbacks.I believe that technologies have definitely benefited society by improving medical advancement, economic growth, and communication among people.

First of all, the advancement in medical treatment and surgery, along with the state-of-the-art medical equipment have saved a great number of patients' lives.In other words, technologies have enabled human beings to live longer and healthier.

Furthermore, innovative technologies have brought society economic prosperity.Our modern society is blessed with accumulated technological advancementimproved facilities, faster transportation system, advanced infrastructures and manufacturing equipment.Without technologies, these benefits would not have been with us.

Finally, technologies have brought an epoch-making breakthrough in our communication; the Internet.With this technology, people on this globe are wired with each other, allowing them to communicate efficiently and effectively.The Internet is the innovation that accelerates globalization.

In summary, medical advancement, economic growth, and better communication are the benefits ensured by technological improvement.Therefore, it stands to reason that technologies are an integral part of the human society.

メメメイナ
これで全部ですね!

ナナナイル
お疲れさま。何回も復習して2次試験の面接でも使えるようにしよう。

英語力をあげてくれた!

英語の基礎力はこれだけ

東京大学の大学院入試合格はこの本のおかげ

英単語→6000語レベル

英文法→英検1級レベル

口語表現→1000レベル

リスニング→超スピード

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